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Overview:

Cholesterol is a kind of fat which is also known as lipid in blood. Our body needs cholesterol which is made with a waxy substance with so many foods specially meat, milk, cheese and egg yolk. High cholesterol builds up in arteries, a blood vessel which carry the blood away from heart. It is the first sign of heart and blood flow problem. Cholesterol can narrow the arteries and make it harder to blood flow through them. High cholesterol can cause heart attacks and stroke. This disease can be inherited but it is the result of an unhealthy life or improper lifestyle which can also be curable.

Symptoms:

Usually, high cholesterol do not have any specific symptoms to appear. Blood test can be helpful to detect cholesterol level. Heart attack or stroke may be the result of high cholesterol.

Causes:

Eating too much fast food like trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol contain food can increase cholesterol level. Saturated fat or cholesterol comes from animals such as meats, whole milk, egg yolks, butter and cheese. And trans fat comes from fried foods, packaged foods such as cookies, crackers, chips and also from cold drinks which is high sugar level can cause high cholesterol. Also irregular physical activity, inherited from family, age and sex are also important factors for high cholesterol disease.

Types:

There are two major types of cholesterol.

  • Total cholesterol: total cholesterol is the estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LPL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and other fats in the blood. Total cholesterol need to be less than 200 mg/dl.
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LPL-C): LDL-C or bad cholesterol transports cholesterol from one to another cell to the body. It carries cholesterol into the walls of arteries, makes them hard and narrow. The level should be less than 100 mg/dl. Patient who already had heart attack or stroke the level for them should be less than 70 mg/dl.
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C): HDL-C or good cholesterol takes excess cholesterol and return it to the liver where it is clear from the body. HDL-C level should be 40 mg/dl or higher to get rid of excess cholesterol from the body.
  • Triglycerides: it is an another blood fat estimate in the lipid panel. They are stored in blood cells use as a source of energy. The level should be less than 150 mg/dl.

Diagnosis & Treatments:

A good change of lifestyle can prevent high cholesterol.

  • A low salt diet can help to keep control high cholesterol
  • Lots of fruits, vegetables and whole grains is really helpful
  • Limitations of animal fats and eat good fats for moderation
  • Loose extra weight and connected with daily physical activities
  • Quite smoking
  • Drink alcohol for moderation
  • Regular check up to know the cholesterol level in the blood through blood test
  • Statin block the enzyme in the liver that helps to make cholesterol which leads to a reduction of cholesterol level in blood.
  • In some cases, low dose aspirin may prescribe which helps to prevent blood clots forming, particularly for those who already has heart attack record.
  • Ezetimibe is medication that blocks the absorption of cholesterol from daily foods and bile juices through intestine in the blood. If the cholesterol level is not in low position then patient can take ezetimibe at the same time satin is taking.